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Description: Website for Optical Communication Enthusiast! is ranked 7377886 in the world (amongst the 40 million domains). A low-numbered rank means that this website gets lots of visitors. This site is relatively popular among users in the united states. It gets 50% of its traffic from the united states .This site is estimated to be worth $2,289. This site has a low Pagerank(0/10). It has 1 backlinks. has 43% seo score. Information

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Purchase/Sale Value: $2,289
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optics 1 0.06%
fiber 14 0.71%
sdh 2 0.06%
wdm 0 0.00%
otn 6 0.18%
ethernet 0 0.00%
mapyourtech 2 0.22%
optix 0 0.00%
question 0 0.00%
interview 2 0.18%
books 0 0.00%
links 1 0.05%
optical 23 1.64%
optics 1 0.06%
fiber 14 0.71%
communication 0 0.00%
sdh 2 0.06%
pdh 0 0.00%
dwdm 0 0.00%
wdm 0 0.00%
otn 6 0.18%
wavelength 3 0.30%
frequency 5 0.45%
client 3 0.18%
gfp 0 0.00%
sonet 0 0.00%
transport 4 0.36%
mapyourtech 2 0.22%
... 0 0.00% Traffic Sources Chart Similar Website

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Home | Share and Explore the Tech Inside You!!! Menu TECH-MATS POSTERS INTERVIEW BUDDY TECH-TALK Library Standards About Reach Me @ TECH-MATS POSTERS INTERVIEW BUDDY TECH-TALK Library Standards About Reach Me @ Enjoy Tech Articles Here!!! HD-FEC & SD-FEC differences August 11, 2016 Items HD-FEC SD-FEC Definition Decoding based on hard-bits(the output is quantized only to two levels) is called the “HD(hard-decision) decoding”, where each bit is considered definitely one or zero. Decoding based on soft-bits(the output is quantized to more than two levels) is called the “SD(soft-decision) decoding”, where not only one or zero decision but also confidence information for the decision are provided. Application Generally for non-coherent detection optical systems, e.g., 10 Gbit/s, 40 Gbit/s, also for some coherent detection optical systems with higher OSNR coherent detection optical systems, e.g., 100 Gbit/s,400 Gbit/s. Electronics Requirement ADC(Analogue-to-Digital Converter) is not necessary in the receiver. ADC is required in the receiver to provide soft information, e.g., coherent detection optical systems. specification general FEC per [ITU-T G.975];super FEC per [ITU-T G.975.1]. vendor specific typical scheme Concatenated RS/BCH LDPC(Low density parity check),TPC(Turbo product code) complexity medium high redundancy ratio generally 7% around 20% NCG about 5.6 dB for general FEC;>8.0 dB for super FEC. >10.0 dB Example(If you asked your friend about traffic jam status on roads and he replies) maybe fully jammed or free 50-50 but I found othe way free or less traffic 0 comments General Share Difference between OTDR and COTDR. August 5, 2016 What is a OTDR ? Optical Time Domain Reflectometer - also known as an OTDR, is a hardware device used for measurement of the elapsed time and intensity of light reflected on optical fiber. How it works? The reflectometer can compute the distance to problems on the fiber such as attenuation and breaks, making it a useful tool in optical network troubleshooting. The intensity of the return pulses is measured and integrated as a function of time, and is plotted as a function of fiber length. What is a COTDR? Coherent Optical Time Domain Reflectometer - also known as a COTDR, An instrument that is used to perform out of service backscattered light measurements on optically amplified line systems. How it works? A fiber pair is tested by launching a test signal into the out going fiber and receiving the scattered light on the in-coming fiber. Light scattered in the transmission fiber is coupled to the incoming fiber in the loop-back couplers in each amplifier pair in a repeater. 0 comments General Share A walk-through with non linear impairments in optical fiber July 13, 2016 Non-linear interactions between the signal and the silica fibre transmission medium begin to appear as optical signal powers are increased to achieve longer span lengths at high bit rates. Consequently, non-linear fibre behaviour has emerged as an important consideration both in high capacity systems and in long unregenerated routes. These non-linearities can be generally categorized as either scattering effects (stimulated Brillouin scattering and stimulated Raman scattering) or effects related to the fibre's intensity dependent index of refraction (self-phase modulation, cross-phase modulation, modulation instability, soliton formation and four-wave mixing). A variety of parameters influence the severity of these non-linear effects, including line code (modulation format), transmission rate, fibre dispersion characteristics, the effective area and non-linear refractive index of the fibre, the number and spacing of channels in multiple channel systems, overall unregenerated system length, as well as signal intensity and source line-width. Since the implementation of transmission systems with higher bit rates than 10 Gbit/s and alternative line codes (modulation formats) than NRZ-ASK or RZ-ASK, described in [b-ITU-T G-Sup.39], non?linear fibre effects previously not considered can have a significant influence, e.g., intra?channel cross-phase modulation (IXPM), intra-channel four-wave mixing (IFWM) and non?linear phase noise (NPN). Refer ITU-T G.663 for further study. 0 comments General Share Understanding multipliers and divisors value in calculating OTN frame rates (255,239,238,237 etc) for OPUk,ODUk and OTUk June 19, 2016 **Multiplicative factor is just a simple math :eg. for ODU1/OPU1=3824/3808={(239*16)/(238*16)} Here value of multiplication factor will give the number of times for rise in the frame size after adding header/overhead. Example:let consider y=(x+delta[x])/x; In terms of OTN frame here delta[x] is increment of Overhead. As we are using Reed Soloman(255,239) i.e we are dividing 4080bytes in sixteen frames (The forward error correction for the OTU-k uses 16-byte interleaved codecs using a Reed- Solomon S(255,239) code. The RS(255,239) code operates on byte symbols.).Hence 4080/16=255. Try to understand using OTN frames now. I have tried to make it legible. As we know that OPU1 payload rate= 2.488 Gbps (OC48/STM16) and is frame size is 4*3808 as below. *After adding OPU1 and ODU1 16 bytes overhead: Frames could be fragmented into following number of chunks. 3808/16 = 238, (3808+16)/16 = 239 So, ODU1 rate: 2.488 x 239/238** ~ 2.499Gbps *Now after adding FEC bytes OTU1 rate: ODU1 x 255/239 = 2.488 x 239/238 x 255/239 =2.488 x 255/238 ~2.667Gbps Now let’s have a small discussion over different multiplier and divisor scenarios that will make it clearer to understand. We know that an OTU frame 4 * 4080 bytes (= 255 * 16 * 4) OPU representing the Payload (3824-16) * 4 * 4 = 3808 bytes (= 238 * 16 * 4) . OPU1 is exactly the rate of STM-16. Now, ODU1 = (3824/3808) * OPU1 = ((16 * 239) / (238 16 *)) * OPU1 = (239/238) * STM-16 OTU1 = (4080/3808) * OPU1 = ((255 * 16) / (238 * 16)) * OPU1 = (255/238) * STM-16 OPU2 contains 16 * 4 = 64 bytes of fixed stuff (FS) added to the 1905 to 1920 . OPU2 * ((238 * 16 * 4-16 * 4) / (238 * 16 * 4)) = STM-64 rate OPU2 = 238 / (238-1) * STM-64 = 238/237* STM-64 rate ODU2 = (239/237) * STM-64 rate , similarly OTU2 = ( 255/237) * STM-64 rate OPU3 Including 2 * 16 * 4 = 128 fixed stuff (FS) bytes added to the 1265 ~ 1280 and 2545 ~ 2560 OPU3 * ((238 * 16 * 4-2 * 16 * 4) / (238 * 16 * 4)) = rate of STM-256 OPU3 = 238 / (238-2) * STM-256 = 238/236 * STM-256 ODU3 = (239 / 236) * STM-256 OTU3 = (255/236) * STM-256 The OTU4 was required to transport ten ODU2e signals, which have a non-SDH based clock frequency as basis. The OTU4 clock should be based on the same SDH clock as the OTU1, OTU2 and OTU3 and not on the 10GBASE-R clock, which determines the ODU2e frequency. An exercise was performed to determine the necessary divider in the factor 255/divider, and the value 227 was found to meet the requirements (factor 255/227). Note that this first analysis has indicated that a future 400 Gbit/s OTU5 could be created using a factor 255/226 and a 1 Tbit/s OTU6 using a factor 255/225. 0 comments General Share How to know if errors are due to linear or non-linear issue in an optical link? June 2, 2016 When the bit error occurs to the system, generally the OSNR at the transmit end is well and the fault is well hidden. Decrease the optical power at the transmit end at that time. If the number of bit errors decreases at the transmit end, the problem is non-linear problem. If the number of bit errors increases at the transmit end, the problem is the OSNR degrade problem. General Causes of Bit Errors Performance degrade of key boards Abnormal optical power Signal-to-noise ratio decrease Non-linear factor Dispersion (chromatic dispersion/PMD) factor Optical reflection External factors (fiber, fiber jumper, power supply, environment and others) 0 comments General Share What is Optical Power Requirement and margin for a optics module's power? June 2, 2016 Optical power tolerance: It refers to the tolerable limit of input optical power, which is the range from sensitivity to overload point. Optical power requirement: If refers to the requirement on input optical power, realized by adjusting the system (such as adjustable attenuator, fix attenuator, optical amplifier). Optical power margin: It refers to an acceptable extra range of optical power. For example, “–5/ + 3 dB” requirement is actually a margin requirement. 0 comments General Share What are main advantages and drawbacks of EDFAs? June 1, 2016 The main advantages and drawbacks of EDFAs are as follows. Advantages Commercially available in C band (1,530 to 1,565 nm) and L band (1,560 to 1,605) and up to 84-nm range at the laboratory stage. Excellent coupling: The amplifier medium is an SM fiber; Insensitivity to light polarization state; Low sensitivity to temperature; High gain: > 30 dB with gain flatness 30dB for general fiber links? A keynote on BER (Bit Error Rate) Q and dBQ : A Walkthrough Subscribe to this Blog View older posts ? Channel Spacing Converter Wavelength (nm) ? Frequency(GHz) Wavelength to Frequency Converter Wavelength (nm) ? Frequency(THz) GOURAV GOYAL Invalid Data Flag or Suspect Interval in PM(Performance Monitoring) counters. May 18, 2016 Good one . May be you can include TIM defect condition. Bucket is also invalid if TIM alarm is raised. vaibhav tripathi OTN supports Transparent Transport of Client Signals:What does it really mean? February 8, 2016 good one safei OTN supports Transparent Transport of Client Signals:What does it really mean? September 30, 2015 thanks a lot very usefull Anonymous OTN supports Transparent Transport of Client Signals:What does it really mean? May 14, 2015 Very nice sir Anonymous Latency in Fiber Optic Networks March 7, 2015 Thanks Nazam !? Nothing is copyrighted here and everyone is free to share and download contents becoz I too have collected it from Internet and I believe in Sharing and Exploring the invincible pool of wisdom!!! Whois

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